Science and Religion

  1. Lemma
  2. Επιστήμη και Θρησκεία
  3. Greek, Modern (1453-)
  4. Delli, Eudoxie
  5. Complementarity - Concepts of knowledge and modes of reasoning > Philosophy of science/epistemology - Concepts of knowledge and modes of reasoning - Ecumenism and dialogue > Education
  6. 14-5-2017
  7. Λυγερός, Νίκος [Author]. Science and Religion
  8. Επιστήμη και Θρησκεία
  9. community - interaction - intersubjectivity - self-consciousness - death - self-realization
    1. <p>Lygeros, N. [Λυγερός, Ν.] (2013, July 15). Επιστήμη και Θρησκεία [Video file]. Retrieved from</p>
    1. Nikos Lygeros answers questions at the meeting held by the Association of Greek Physicists and the Studying Group for the Relationship Between Science and Faith around the theme From theories and doctrines to Man. Based mainly on his mathematical background on complex systems and net theories, Lygeros emphasizes the role of interaction and highlights the importance of complementarity in intersubjective relations. From this standpoint, he treats also the subject of the relation of science and Religion.

      Lygeros begins with condemning the idea of solipsism – the epistemological and metaphysical position according to which knowledge of anything (external world and others too) outside one's own mind is unsure or even might not exist - emphasizing rather on a holistic approach to society as a whole, than on particular individuals. He supports this view by stating that, when observing a community of people, the amount and importance of the relationships between the subjects/entities within the community is greater than the subjects/entities themselves. To prove his point, he illustrates how in science, connections between distinctive entities lead to more results than the investigation of entities themselves.

      Further into the conversation, Lygeros proceeds to mention the impact that the human will has on the intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships, and thus, humanity as a whole. He continues by talking about systems. Per him, an axiomatic system can be complete. Nonetheless, when this system contains arithmetic, completeness, it cannot occur. Instead, though there is no completeness, there is perfection. These are the rules that make up the system that govern humanity and our world.

      One would argue that the network of all people cannot be perfect, given some are far from it. Lygeros contrasts this by exemplifying how constructive learning happens in the framework of an educational relationship between a pupil and a teacher. In his example, he mentions that, during a lecture of a professor, a student may pose an invalid question. Such an error or nonsense is not fruitless. It could be creative through human interaction. Often, this sparks an idea to the professor sharing with the student, which they would not otherwise have based on the knowledge they acquire. This interaction is not something that can be found in purely social gatherings. It is a specific form of communication that humans develop and express in their mutual interaction, which is accompanied with a higher level of understanding, constructing that which is perfect.

      Lygeros distinguishes the dynamics of groups from simply social gatherings. It is only within the framework of groups that the making of Self is based on otherness and intersubjectivity. Social gatherings are rather grounded in sameness.

      This higher level of understanding is very evident in the relationship between science and religion. The big questions posed often, is whether theology is a science, and whether science is a field of theology itself. As separate entities, although they do not have common qualities, they are complementary to each other, giving us an understanding to this perfect world.

      This experience and practice of higher understanding derives from the unique ability of humans to recognize their own mortality. Τhe awareness of death opens the path both to self-consciousness and self-realization. Human self resists death, considered as the end of individual existence, through creative work. Having done that, humans strive to produce work before their physical death and transmit it as a legacy, frequently, as seen in his example, done through the medium of education.