Anthropic Principle and Cosmology

  1. Lemma
  2. Ανθρωπική Αρχή και Κοσμολογία
  3. Greek, Modern (1453-)
  4. Delli, Eudoxie
  5. Scientific theories and disciplines > Cosmology- Anthropic principle
  6. 11-5-2017
  7. Δανακάλης, Άρης [Author]. Anthropic Principle and Cosmology
  8. Πεμπτουσία
  9. Mutliverse theory - Intelligent Design - Observation Selection Effect
    1. Danakalis, A. (2013). Ανθρωπική Αρχή και Κοσμολογία. Retrieved from
    1. According to the author contemporary cosmological theories such as the Big Bang depend on a large array of specific "variables". in order to explain the anthropic principle, he uses the example of the cosmological constant in which humanists attribute the existence of this constant to the existence of humanity. It is important to highlight that if these variables were any different, life would not exist. A cosmologist would argue that human existence is irrelevant to the cosmological constant and the existence of the cosmos. Arguably, humans play the important role of the observers of the universe. Without the observer there would be no one to acknowledge the reality of the universe.

      Most scientists theorize that life is nothing but a very fortunate and random occurrence. Yet, they hope for a more concise theory which better explains the origin of life and existence. There are two theories which examine this topic; the “Design Hypothesis” and the “Observation Selection Effect”. The Design Hypothesis supports that since there’s a Design, there must be a Designer, something covered by the field of theology. On the other hand, the observation selection effect is a phenomenon in which the observation of the environment is affected by the senses of the observer.

      A theory which refutes neither theory of the above is the “Multiverse Theory”, according to which the universe we consistently experience is one of an infinite number of universes that comprise everything that exists.

      In conclusion, both the Design and Multiverse hypotheses examine the metaphysical world and, although they are contrasting to each other, they are not incompatible. Both theories are not subject to empirical (experimental) confirmation, lack scientific evidence and thus fall under the metaphysical. There is a fine line between physics and metaphysics and even though there’s scientific methodology backing the Multiverse theory, the lack of evidence is ample for it to be considered part of metaphysics.

      This article contains excerpts from the lecture of Ar. Dakanalis in the 1st Conference "Philosophy and Cosmology", which took place under the auspices of the Hellenic Association of Philosophical Studies, the International Scientific Society of Ancient Greek Philosophy and the Association of Greek Physicists. The entire contribution is contained in the conference proceedings, published by the Aigies editions.