1. Lemma
  2. Доминанта
  3. Russian
  4. Saprykin, Dmitry
  5. Theological works of scientists and engineers - Scientific theories and disciplines > Biology
  6. 2002
  7. Ukhtomsky Alexey [Author]. Dominant. Articles in different years.
  8. Доминанта. Статьи разных лет. 1887-1939. : Dominant. Articles in different years.
  9. physiology
    1. Alexey Ukhtomsky (1875 - 1942) along with I.P. Pavlov is the greatest Russian physiologist and psychologist Soviet academician. At the same time, an Orthodox philosopher and theologian, a graduate of the Moscow Theological Academy and St. Petersburg State University. In the University Ukhtomsky was a pupil and collaborator of Nicholay Evgenievich Vvedensky, who was in turn a pupil of Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov. Pavlov, Sechenov, Vvedensky and Ukhtomsky are the most outstanding representatives and founders of the Russian school of physiology.

      Ukhtomsky is a creator of the theory of dominant and chronotope. He was one of the first in the world to start developing a systematic principle in biology, considering organism to be a dynamic integrity. Historical and scientific investigations have shown that the starting point of the dominant concept was discovery in 1908 by Ukhtomskiy and Vvedensky of an extremely important for the physiology phenomenon when the excitation occurring in stimulation of one or another of the afferent nerve or of the corresponding receptive field, entering the central nervous system, is widely distributed therein in the form of diffuse wave, and then leads to more dominant excitation and simultaneous conjugated inhibition of remaining neural networks. According to Ukhtomsky, it is the physiological mechanism of dominant strengthening and conjugated inhibition of the entire nervous network to eliminate the confusion and to provide strict coordination when implementing various adaptive forms of the whole organism behavior.

      Later Ukhtomsky on the base of this discovery developed the concept of dominant and chronotope providing explanation for a number of critical physiological phenomena, as well as the psychological mechanisms related to attention and memory. The Ukhtomsky’s ideas have played a very productive role in physiology and psychology and still retain their value. Publication of the philosophical and theological works of Academician Ukhtomsky in the last twenty years shows that his physiological concepts of the dominant and chronotope are linked tightly with the author’s theological seeking.

      The book "Dominant. Articles in different years" published in 2002 is a first collection of the Ukhtomsky’s major articles related to the theory of dominant and chronotope, created from 1908 to 1942, his course work (in theology) written during his studies at the Moscow Theological Academy, and finally the diaries from 1896 to 1940 revealing that the physiological and psychological ideas of the great Russian scientist are directly connected to his theological and philosophical arguments rooted in the Orthodox tradition and patristic heritage.